The on-line transmission from the flight2017-10-17 17:03:08
WARSAW - UNIQUE LOCATION BETWEEN VAST FORESTS
Dunes, are one of the most precious and most beautiful elements of the natural scenery of Mazovia, next to the Warsaw Plateau and Vistula River Valley. Today, pine forests grow on most of them.
Extensive forests, remains of the former Mazovian Primaeval Forest until the Middle Ages stretching on both sides of the Vistula, still surround today’s Warsaw from the north, east and south.
Of special natural and climatic importance for the city are the forest complexes of the Kampinos Forest, bordering the capital agglomeration from the northwest, and forests of the Mazovian Landscape Park at its the eastern outskirts. Warsaw is among precious few European capitals directly surrounded with areas of so great natural valour.
The structure of the higher accumulation terraces of the Vistula Valley, where the Kampinos Forest grows, was formed after the retreat of the last glaciation (called Vistulian). Aeolian processes formed various morphological structures of dunes, forming parabolic shapes, ramparts or rims. Soon, however, dunes were overgrown by forests, and most of them became immobilized and survived in their almost unchanged original form.
A characteristic element accompanying dune areas are deflationary grounds - depressions forming behind the dunes when sands are blown away. Such bowls often quickly fill with groundwater creating bog-lakes. First marshes, today already overgrown with peatbogs, appeared also a dozen thousands of years ago within fragments of the former course of Vistula. The proximity of extensive marshes and belts of sandy dunes grown mostly with pine and mixed forests forms the characteristic scenery for the original and the present Kampinos Forest.
In January 2000, the Kampinos National Park has been listed among the UNESCO Biosphere Reserves.